Government of New Brunswick
Native Species of Concern

Insects and plant diseases are found around the world. They have evolved in a variety of different habitats, including the temperate forests of North America. In forest ecosystems they serve a variety of functions, ranging from the pollination of plants to the decomposition of trees.

Worldwide it is now estimated that over 5 million species exist, with over one million species identified. Our Canadian forest hosts about 55,000 species. Very few are major forest pests and those that are will vary from province to province based on forest-type and eco-regions. A few of the native species that the Department of Natural Resources and Energy Development (DNRED) keeps an active watch over include:

  • Spruce budworm
  • Hemlock looper
  • Spruce beetle
  • White pine weevil
  • Spruce sawfly
  • Cedar leafminer

Pathogens are organisms that cause disease to their host such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria. They can be spread from tree to tree by animals such as birds, move through the air or water, or even be spread on the boots of humans as we walk through the forests. Pathogens can be challenging to identify, often requiring microscopes or genetic testing to confirm species. Many of these organisms can lie dormant or persist at low levels until conditions are favorable for rapid spread. The conditions are often environmental and hard to predict, making it challenging to assess risk conditions. Some of the common pathogens on our watch list include:

  • Armillaria spp.
  • Needle casts, rusts and blights


Non-Native Species of Concern

In today's global economy, there is an increased risk with respect to the introduction of non-native pests. Some of these pests may pose a direct threat to our forest and natural ecosystems. With the increasing role of plant health and quarantine issues in international trade – they are also an indirect threat to the export and domestic movement of forest products.

New Brunswick has numerous potential introduction pathways. Bordering with three provinces, the state of Maine and containing a large port-of-call for shipping containers in Saint John, we are clearly a transportation corridor. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) are the primary agency responsible for monitoring and regulating invasive species in Canada. As such, it is their role to monitor for the potential import of harmful pests through these pathways and to identify and regulate and new introductions. A list of regulated species and areas, and materials that are prohibited from moving from these regulated areas (e.g. firewood) can be found on their website.

DNRED has supported the CFIA in monitoring and communications efforts, and in some cases has taken the lead role on monitoring within regulated areas for species of particular concern to the Province. Some of the species we are currently monitoring include:

  • Emerald Ash Borer
  • Browntail moth
  • Hemlock woolly adelgid
  • Brown spruce longhorn beetle
  • Oak wilt disease
  • Lymantria dispar asiatica