Intimate partner violence takes many forms:
IPV is based on a relationship of domination. Victims may suffer from isolation, harassment, humiliation, intimidation, threats, physical and sexual violence, and emotional blackmail. The abusive partner may also abuse the victim by controlling the victim’s income and expenses in order to take away independence. The partner’s hold over the victim might extend to a psychological level.
Alcohol, drugs and stress might worsen violent behaviour, but do not justify it.